Kemampuan Menulis Guru Lemah? Print
Written by Mudjia Rahardjo   
Friday, 26 March 2010 01:20

Berita Kompas (19/3/2010) halaman 12 tentang rendahnya kemampuan guru menulis karya ilmiah tidak mengejutkan banyak orang karena bukan hal baru. Berita sejenis sebelumnya pernah dimuat oleh beberapa media. Sebenarnya, lemahnya tradisi menulis ilmiah tidak saja terjadi di kalangan guru, tetapi juga dosen. Penyebabnya macam-macam. Tetapi umumnya antara lain karena lemahnya kesadaran pentingnya menulis, tidak tahu manfaat menulis,  keterbatasan mengakses informasi sehingga tidak tahu apa yang harus ditulis, lemahya penguasaan metode ilmiah, kurangnya dorongan pimpinan sekolah kepada para guru untuk menulis. Khusus untuk dosen, penyebab yang lain adalah karena menulis dianggap membuang waktu dan tidak menguntungkan secara material. Sebab, daripada waktu untuk menulis lebih baik dipakai untuk mengajar yang bisa memperoleh keuntungan material secara langsung.

Keadaan di atas bukan isapan jempol. Coba saja berkunjung ke perpustakaan sekolah. Selain umumnya buku bacaan  yang tersedia sangat sedikit, karya ilmiah dari hasil tulisan guru juga hanya beberapa biji, apalagi hasil penelitian. Selain jumlahnya sangat sedikit,  buku yang tersedia umumnya juga buku-buku lama atau yang tidak bermutu sehingga tidak dapat menunjang peningkatan kualitas akademik siswa. Padahal, ilmu pengetahuan berkembang demikian pesat yang mestinya dibarengi dengan ketersediaan buku atau bacaan yang banyak dan up  to date.di setiap lembaga atau satuan pendidikan.

Rendahnya kemampuan dan minat menulis karya ilmiah juga berdampak pada mandeknya jenjang kepangkatan guru. Secara nasional, sebagian besar kepangkatan guru berhenti pada golongan IV A. Mengapa? Sebab, mulai golongan IV A ke atas kenaikan golongan mensyaratkan komponen dari penulisan karya ilmiah, selain komponen mengajar. Akibatnya, sebagai fakta, dari sekitar 2,6 juta guru hanya 0, 87 % guru yang bergolongan IVB, 0, 07 % untuk golongan IVC, dan 0,02 % untuk guru golongan IV D.

Kondisi ini sangat memprihatinkan di tengah-tengah upaya dan keinginan besar pemerintah untuk meningkatkan mutu pendidikan agar memiliki daya saing tinggi. Tampaknya perlu segera dicari sebuah strategi yang sangat jitu untuk menyelesaikan persoalan ini. Harus dibangun kesadaran bahwa pendidik (guru san dosen) adalah orang yang selain bertugas menyampaikan ilmu pengetahuan kepada anak didik untuk menyiapkan masa depan mereka, juga orang yang seharusnya mencintai ilmu pengetahuan dan mengembangkannya. Di sini diperlukan pemahaman bahwa ilmu pengetahuan akan berkembang jika dibarengi dengan tradisi menulis. Dengan kata lain, ilmu pengetahuan tumbuh jika ada tradisi menulis di kalangan masyarakat, bukan tradisi lisan.

Sayangnya, di masyarakat kita, termasuk masyarakat akademik sekalipun, tradisi lisan masih jauh lebih dominan ketimbang trdisi tulis. Orang bisa betah ngobrol ke sana ke mari selama berjam-jam, tetapi segera pusing jika berada di depan komputer untuk menulis. Belajar dari bangsa di negara-negara maju, kita bisa menyaksikan bahwa umumnya tradisi tulis yang diikuti dengan tradisi membaca mereka jauh lebih dominan ketimbang tradisi lisan. Wajar jika di masyarakat semacam itu ilmu pengetahuan berkembang demikian cepat.

Seorang pakar bernama Peter Russel pernah mencoba menghitung laju dan percepatan pertumbuhan ilmu dan teknologi dengan hasil cukup mengejutkan. Andai kita membiji satu satuan pengetahuan kolektif manusia untuk Tahun 1 Masehi, itu dicapai manusia selama 50.000 tahun. Menjelang tahun 1500, karena manusia telah berhasil mengembangkan sistem bahasa tulis, volume pengetahuan mengalami penggandaan, menjadi dua kali lebih besar daripada sebelumnya. Penggandaan berikutnya terjadi tahun 1750. Hingga awal 1900-an, jumlah pengetahuan kolektif manusia sudah mencapai 8 (delapan) satuan.

Masa penggandaan makin lama makin singkat. Untuk penggandaan berikutnya, umat manusia hanya butuh waktu 50 tahun, yang menurun lagi menjadi 10 tahun. Pada tahun 1960 umat manusia memiliki 32 satuan pengetahuan kolektif. Tiga belas tahun kemudian (1973) menjadi 128 satuan. Kini, penggandaan akan terjadi setiap 18 bulan. Tak pelak lagi, timbunan pengetahuan umat manusia sekarang jauh lebih besar ketimbang yang terkumpul selama 7 millenia alias 7000 tahun.

Apa penyebab dari percepatan ilmu pengetahuan tersebut? Tidak lain karena kebiasaan masyarakat mengembangkan tradisi menulis dan membaca. Tapi saya juga segera sadar bahwa menulis itu tidak mudah. Itu sebabnya, dari empat ketrampilan berbahasa (listening, speaking, reading , dan writing), ketrampilan menulis berada pada urutan terakhir karena dianggap paling sulit. Menulis melibatkan banyak faktor: apa yang ditulis, untuk siapa tulisan itu dimaksudkan, dan bagaimana menulisnya. Namun demikian, kendati merupakan ketrampilan paling sulit, tidak berarti ketrampilan menulis tidak bisa dipelajari dan dikuasai. Tulis saja apa yang kita mau. Never feel hesitate ! Selamat mencoba dan mencoba !        .

__________

 

Makasar, 25 Maret 2010

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    Apa yang Prof. katakan adalah betul adanya. Kebanyakan guru terlalu fokus pada pengembangan bahan ajar untuk siswa tetapi lupa akan pengembangan keilmuan untuk dirinya sendiri. Padahal, salah satu cara pengembangan dan aplikasi keintelektialan adalah dari menulis atas pengetahuan yang diperolehnya. Semoga dengan membaca artikel ini, saya bisa menjadi giat menulis seperti yang telah Prof lakukan. Terima kasih Prof.
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