Perubahan Sosial Print
Written by Mudjia Rahardjo   
Thursday, 01 April 2010 01:46

Seorang kawan yang sudah lama bermukim di luar negeri pulang kampung tempat kelahirannya untuk berkunjung ke orangtua dan sanak keluarganya yang masih hidup. Betapa kagetnya dia melihat desa kelahirannya dan tempat sanak kelurganya tinggal itu kini telah berubah total. Jalan-jalan beraspal halus, sepeda motor dan bahkan mobil banyak lalu lalang, rumah-rumah penduduk tidak ada lagi yang berdinding bambu (Jawa: gedhek), banyak toko di pinggir jalan, listrik ada di setiap rumah, beberapa rumah bahkan memasang pesawat telepon. Gedung Sekolah Dasar tempat dia belajar dulu juga telah berubah menjadi bangunan modern. Langgar kecil tempat kami mengaji dulu kini tekah diubah menjadi masjid yang cukup besar untuk ukuran desa. Yang lebih mengagetkan lagi adalah banyak anak-anak muda memegang hand phone. Dia masa dia anak-anak seusia itu dulu pekerjaannya merumput (Jawa: ngarit) untuk makanan ternak.

Pada saat yang sama dia melihat ada sesuatu yang hilang, antara lain tidak banyak orang bekerja di sawah, tidak ada lagi dokar yang dulu lalu lalang dan menjadi sarana transportasi utama, tidak lagi ada penggembala sapi, kerbau, dan itik yang dulu merupakan pemandangan sehari-hari. Tak terlihat juga petani beramai-ramai memanen padi secara bersama-sama (Jawa: derep). Guru kami yang dulu menjadi tempat bertanya masalah apa saja kini telah tiada. Sungai tempat dia mencari ikan sekarang tidak lagi berair. Dibanding desa sekitarnya, desa itu lebih subur sehingga petani yang punya lahan luas umumnya kaya karena hasil panennya banyak. Dia juga merasa senang karena di desa itu tidak lagi tampak ada orang miskin yang dulu biasanya bekerja membantu tetangganya yang lebih kaya.

Suatu saat dia berkunjung ke rumah saya sambil bernostalgia. Bertemu dengan taman lama yang dulu sangat akrab tentu merupakan kebahagiaan tersendiri. Apalagi dia sekarang bermukim di negeri orang. Tentu banyak pengalaman yang bisa diceritakan. Pertemuan itu mengenang masa lalu. Banyak kenangan lama yang saling kami ungkap kembali. Saat-saat kami berdua berjalan tanpa alas kaki melintasi jalan pedesaan dan sawah menuju sekolah merupakan kenangan indah yang sampai sekarang masih kami ingat. Andai saja waktu bisa diputar, rasanya kami ingin sekali mengulanginya.

Kawan itu tidak henti-hentinya menyampaikan keheranannya atas perubahan yang terjadi di desa kelahirannya yang demikian pesat, mulai dari sarana fisik jalan, transportasi, rumah penduduk, listrik, sampai persoalan kebiasaan warga sehari-hari yang tidak lagi bekerja di sawah atau ladang. Selama ini dia membayangkan bahwa desanya masih seperti dulu ketika dia masih tinggal bersama orangtuanya. Kalaupun berubah tidak  sedemikian banyak.

Sebagai orang yang belajar ilmu sosial, saya jelaskan bahwa kehidupan bukan barang cetakan, melainkan sebuah proses berkesinambungan yang selalu membaharu, bertumbuh- kembang, dan berubah. Para pakar menyebutnya gejala seperi di atas sebagai perubahan sosial. Perubahan sosial merupakan proses yang dilalui oleh masyarakat sehingga menjadi berbeda dengan sebelumnya. Penanda perubahan sosial  adalah adanya perbedaan pola budaya, struktur dan perilaku sosial antara satu waktu dan dengan waktu lain. Karena itu, perubahan sosial hanya dapat ditemukenali setelah membandingkan antara pola budaya, struktur, dan perilaku sosial yang ada pada waktu sebelumnya dengan waktu sekarang. Semakin besar perbedaan, mencerminkan semakin luas dan mendalamnya suatu perubahan sosial. Mendengarkan penjelasan saya itu, dia tampak tertegun sambil matanya sesekali menerawang kembali ke masa silam. “Perubahan memang berlangsung cepat, mas”, begitu respons dia.

Saya lanjutkan penjelasan saya. Para ilmuwan sosial membedakan perubahan dalam masyarakat menjadi tiga jenis, yaitu: (1) perubahan peradaban, (2) perubahan budaya, (3) perubahan sosial. “Apa mas bedanya masing-masing?”, tanya dia. Perubahan peradaban biasanya dikaitkan dengan perubahan unsur-unsur atau aspek yang lebih bersifat fisik, seperti mesin-mesin, pakaian, sarana komunikasi –transportasi, bangunan rumah, dan sebangainya yang berjalan sangat cepat.

Perubahan budaya menyangkut aspek rohaniah, seperti keyakinan, nilai-nilai,  pengetahuan, dan penghayatan seni. Norma hubungan antara anak dengan orangtua, antara peserta didik dengan pendidik, antara bawahan dengan atasan, antara santri dengan kyai, termasuk pola hubungan antar-tetangga merupakan jenis perubahan budaya. Norma-norma ini , meskipun mengalami perubahan, tidak bisa secepat perubahan barang-barang peradaban.

Sedangkan perubahan sosial menunjuk pada perubahan aspek-aspek hubungan sosial, pranata-pranata masyarakat, dan pola perilaku kelompok. Salah satu bentuk perubahan sosial adalah semakin banyaknya pranata-pranata masyarakat yang bersifat formal, mulai dari organisasi pemerintahan, hingga organisasi arisan warga, dengan pola hubungan yang lebih rasional. Dahulu pola hubungan organisasi-organisasi demikian bersifat informal dengan pola hubungan emosional.

“Apa mas penyebab utama perubahan sosial?”, tanya dia lagi. Banyak faktor penyebab perubahan. Misalnya, arus globalisasi, pengembangan sains dan teknologi, kontak budaya antara warga masyarakat yang satu dengan warga yang lain, dan sebagainya termasuk perpindahan penduduk atau migrasi. Begitu saya menyebut migrasi, dia kaget dan berujar “ Lho, kalau begitu saya juga menjadi penyebab perubahan sosial ya?, “Tentu saja iya”, jawab saya. “Padahal, saya belum pernah sekalipun pulang sejak saya meninggalkan desa kita. Bagaimana ini menjadi penyebab perubahan?, tanya dia lagi. Saya pun balik bertanya “Tahukah masyarakat desa  jika mas pergi dan tinggal di negeri orang?”. Dia menjawab “ya, semua tahu”. Nah! Mereka mengidolakan mas karena keberhasilannya. Mas adalah contoh pemuda desa yang hebat karena berani merantau di negeri orang dengan hanya berbekal pendidikan STM. Mas berhasil karena tekun dan tidak cengeng. Dia tersenyum mendengarkan kata-kata saya.

Waktu sudah menujukkan pukul 22. 30, rasa kantuk sudah mulai mengganggu karena seharian kerja penuh. Obrolan ringan itu segera kami akhiri dengan harapan bisa ketemu lagi di lain kesempatan. Usai pertemuan, hati saya berkata “Kalau begitu agen perubahan memang tidak harus hadir secara fisik di tempat terjadinya perubahan, dari jauh pun orang bisa melakukan perubahan”. Agar tidak menjadi beban pikiran waktu tidur, kesimpulan akhir itu saya serahkan sepenuhnya kepada para pakar dan pengkaji perubahan sosial. !

 

Malang, 1 April 2010

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