Proposisi dalam Penelitian Print
Written by Mudjia Rahardjo   
Wednesday, 09 October 2019 05:16

A. Pengantar

Pada tulisan terdahulu berjudul “Antara Konsep, Proposisi, Teori, Variabel, dan Hipotesis dalam Penelitian” telah dibahas sekilas mengenai proposisi. Tulisan ini akan menjelaskannya lebih dalam dengan harapan para mahasiswa dan peneliti dapat lebih memahami proposisi (bukan preposisi) dan maknanya dalam penelitian. Sebagaimana diketahui penelitian apa saja hakikatnya melibatkan dua tahap penting, yaitu tahap teoretisasi dan empirisasi. Mengulang tulisan sebelumnya, teoretisasi meliputi pemahaman tentang konsep, proposisi, dan teori. Proposisi merupakan bagian teoretisasi yang sangat penting dipahami oleh para peneliti, terutama untuk penulisan disertasi. Sedangkan empirisasi meliputi identifikasi variabel penelitian, perumusan hipotesis, penentuan definisi operasional, penyusunan instrumen penelitian dan penentuan sampel penelitian.

 

B. Pembahasan

Sajian ini akan membahas proposisi lebih dalam dengan harapan para penulis karya ilmiah, terutama tesis dan disertasi, dapat memahami dan menggunakannya dalam karya imiah  mereka. Menurut pengalaman penulis, hingga saat ini para penulis disertasi masih belum memahami pentingnya propisisi dalam penelitian dan masih banyak yang menemui kesulitan bagaimana menyusunnya. Ini dapat dipahami karena menyusun konsep, proposisi, apalagi teori memang tidak mudah, karena sangat abstrak sehingga diperlukan kontemplasi serius oleh para peneliti. Walau tidak mudah,  bagian ini harus dilalui para peneliti karena melalui proposisi akan diketahui bahwa masalah yang kompleks bisa disederhanakan dalam kalimat pernyataan pendek, walau masih memerlukan pembuktian lebih lanjut untuk memperoleh kebenaran ilmiah.

Dalam praktik, ditemukan banyak kerancuan untuk membedakan antara hipotesis dan proposisi. Sebenarnya tidak sulit membedakan keduanya; jika pada hipotesis variabel yang disandingkan sudah berbentuk kata-kata operasional, maka dalam proposisi masih dalam bentuk konsep. Karena itu benar jika secara sederhana para ahli mengartikan proposisi sebagai pernyataan hubungan yang logis antara dua konsep yang lazimnya dinyatakan dalam bentuk kalimat pernyataan.

Secara lebih komprehensif, Daulay (2019: 388) menjelaskan dalam penelitiannya tentang Strategi Adaptasi Komunitas Lokalisasi Pasca Penutupan Tempat Pelacuran Dolly Surabaya bahwa proposisi ialah pernyataan hubungan yang logis antara nilai atau sifat dalam sebuah kalimat yang memiliki arti penuh dan utuh,  yakni suatu kalimat bisa dipercaya, disangsikan, disangkal, dan atau dibuktikan benar tidaknya (pernyataan mengenai hal-hal yang dinilai benar atau salah). Wujudnya, proposisi berbentuk kalimat pernyataan yang terdiri atas dua atau variasi yang menyatakan hubungan sebab akibat (kausalitas). Dari batasan tersebut terdapat dua kata hubung sebab akibat yang mempunyai makna bagi proposisi tersebut. Singarimbun dan Effendi (1995: 32) menggambarkan hubungan antara konsep, proposisi, hipotesis, dan variabel   sebagai berikut:

 

Proposisi

Konsep ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Konsep

 

 

 

Hipotesis

Variabel --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Variabel

 

 

 

Hipotesis Statistik

Definisi Operasional ------------------------------------------------------------------ Definisi Operasional

 




C.
Contoh Proposisi

Berikut disajikan contoh proposisi dalam beberapa bidang ilmu.

1. Dalam bidang agama, misalnya, seorang peneliti menuliskan proposisi sebagai berikut: ”Tingkat pengetahuan agama seseorang menentukan sikap keseharian hidupnya di masyarakat”.

Dari proposisi itu dapat diuraikan hal-hal sebagai berikut:

Konsep: agama

Konsep:  Sikap keseharian hidup

Variabel: Tingkat pengetahuan agama (rendah, sedang,

tinggi)

Hipotesis: Semakin tinggi tingkat pengetahuan agama seseorang, semakin baik sikap kesehariannya di masyarakat.

2. Dalam bidang manajemen pendidikan, misalnya, seorang peneliti dapat menyusun proposisi sebagai berikut: “Kepemimpinan kepala sekolah menentukan keberhasilan sekolah”.

Dari proposisi itu dapat diuraikan hal-hal sebagai berikut:

Konsep: kepemimpinan

Konsep: keberhasilan

Variabel: kualitas kepemimpinan (buruk, cukup/sedang, baik)

Hipotesis: Semakin baik kepemimpinan kepala sekolah, semakin  memudahkan  sekolah mencapai keberhasilan.

3. Dalam bidang kependudukan atau demografi, misalnya, ada proposisi terkenal yang ditawarkan oleh Hariis dan Todaro, yang banyak digunakan dalam studi kependudukan berbunyi “Proses migrasi tenaga kerja ditentukan oleh perbedaan upah”.

Dari proposisi di atas dapat diurakan hal-hal sebagai berikut:

Konsep: migrasi

Konsep: upah

Variabel: upah (rendah, sedang, tinggi)

Hipotesis: Semakin tinggi upah yang diberikan kepada pekerja, semakin besar peluang mereka untuk bergabung”

4. Dalam bidang sosiologi, seorang peneliti dapat menyusun proposisi sebagai berikut: “Karakteristik individu menentukan integrasi sosial seseorang di masyarakat”.

Konsep : karakteristik individu

Konsep : integrasi sosial

Variabel: karakteristik individu (luwes, kaku)

Hipotesis: Semakin luwes seseorang bertindak, semakin mudah dia diterima oleh masyarakat sekelilingnya.

5. Dalam bidang politik, misalnya, seorang peneliti dapat menyusun proposisi sebagai berikut: “Pendidikan seseorang menentukan pemahamannya tentang demokrasi”.

Konsep: pendidikan

Konsep: demokrasi

Variabel: pendidikan  (rendah, sedang, tinggi)

Hipotesis: Semakin tinggi tingkat pendidikan seseorang, semakin paham makna demokrasi”.

6. Dalam bidang ekonomi, ada proposisi sebagai berikut: “Status sosial-ekonomi keluarga menentukan perilaku anak”.

Konsep: sosial-ekonomi

Konsep: perilaku anak

Variabel : status sosial-ekonomi (rendah, sedang, tinggi)

Hipotesis: Semakin tinggi status sosial-ekonomi keluarga semakin baik perilaku anak”.

Lebih lanjut, menurut Singarimbun dan Effendi (1995: 36) dalam penelitian sosial biasanya dikenal dua tipe proposisi, yakni aksioma atau postulat dan teorem. Aksioma atau postulat ialah proposisi yang kebenarannya tidak dipertanyakan lagi oleh peneliti, sehingga tidak perlu diuji dalam penelitian. Misalnya, “perilaku manusia selalu terikat dengan norma sosial” ialah contoh sebuah proposisi yang kebenarannya tidak dipertanyakan. Sebagai makhluk sosial, secara naluriah tindakan manusia tidak bebas, dia niscaya terikat oleh norma atau nilai-nilai yang berkembang di masyarakat di mana dia tinggal. Proposisi semacam itu seolah sudah menjadi dalil yang tidak perlu dibuktikan kebenarannya. Itulah yang disebut “aksioma atau postulat”.

Sedangkan teorem ialah proposisi yang dideduksikan dari aksioma. Sebagai contoh “perilaku seseorang dipengaruhi oleh niatnya untuk melakukan perilaku tersebut”. Disebut teorem, karena kebenarannya masih diragukan. Pernyataan itu bisa benar bisa salah. Sebab, belum tentu perilaku seseorang terhadap sesuatu ditentukan oleh niatnya untuk melakukan hal itu. Bisa saja perilaku seseorang terhadap sesuatu dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan atau keadaan ketika niatnya muncul saat itu.

D. Penutup

Sebagai aktivitas ilmiah, penelitian melibatkan dua tahap  penting, yaitu tahap  teoretisasi dan empirisasi. Tahap teoretisasi meliputi pemahaman tentang konsep, proposisi, dan teori.  Sedangkan tahap empirisasi meliputi identifikasi variabel penelitian, perumusan hipotesis, penentuan definisi operasional, penyusunan instrumen penelitian dan penentuan sampel penelitian. Sebagai bagian tahapan teoretisasi, proposisi sangat penting dalam penelitian. Melalui proposisi, peneliti akan dapat menyusun teori. Karena itu, penting bagi peneliti, terutama untuk kepentingan disertasi dapat memahami konsep proposisi dan menyusunnya dalam penelitian.

_____________

Yogyakarta, 9 September 2019

 

Daftar Pustaka:

Daulay, Pardamean. 2019. “Perubahan Ruang Sosial Ekonomi dan

Strategi Adaptasi Komunitas Lokalisasi Pasca Penutupan Dolly di Kota Surabaya”, Disertasi, Program Doktor Sosiologi, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Brawijaya.

Singarimbun, Masri dan Effendi, Sofian (eds.). 1995. METODE

PENELITIAN SURVAI. Jakarta: LP3ES

 

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    Many thanks for the fantastic post C I’d fun reading it! That i love this blog.

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  • Free Rideshare  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Free Rideshare  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Carpooling Guy  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Free Rideshare  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • sms upoznavanje  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Kristopher Vierk  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Keith Cordray  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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    link:"#comment-1872539" rel="nofollow", link:"#comment-1872579" rel="nofollow", Oh, my sweet summer children, what do you know about standing against impossible odds? Tolkien knew that so I guess that’s why in his novels no-one snarked at the elves when they arrived to aid the humans at Helm’s Deep. (Sorry, couldn’t help.) Anyway, there are tons of historical precedents proving that people tend to welcome any potential savor when they find themselves under threat disregarding the level of literacy or racism or whatever. Conflicts do arise but later: for instance when the savor disrespects some local custom or fails the expectations in another way. If the showrunners wanted a conflict between Daenerys and the northerners, they should have made some Dothraki to grab some northern girl and built the whole thing around that.
  • Jeannie  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Shona Nassr  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Merle Corron  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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    Greetings. If you love English Bulldogs, you have to check out Bully at http://q.gs/F4ij7.

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  • Hoa Mam  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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    Thanks you if you want to see me naked click my name!

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  • AdamSusic  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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  • Fletcher Kendall  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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    Son Media webflow nhà s?n xu?t l?ng xê T?I phi tr??ng M?I NH?T. các màn hình kh?ng kh?ng trong nhà th??ng s? dùng m?u cabinet ??n gi?n ?? l?p ??t ho?c h? h?t dùng nam châm g?n. Ngay t?i h? th?ng màn hình PR sân bay link:"https://quangcaotaisanbay.hatenablog.com/" rel="external nofollow" class="url"Tân S?n Nh?t ?ã mang l?i hi?u qu? truy?n thông, truy?n bá c?c k? to. ??c thù, màn hình LED s? h?u hi?u qu? nh?t vào ban ?êm, thu?n l?i thu hút s? chú ý c?a m?i ng??i và ?ây là b??c tr??c h?t ?? ?áp ?ng khách hàng ti?m n?ng cho doanh nghi?p. ?i?u này vô cùng quan tr?ng trong th?i ?i?m mà kinh t? ?áng mang s? c?nh tranh r?t cao. ngo?i hình t?i ?u: ?? v?t r?t m?ng và v?i tr?ng l??ng nh?, ch? t?n r?t ít th?i kì ?? l?p ??t ho?c tháo d? r?i màn hình LED nh? m?u mã l?p ráp chóng vánh. Vì vi?c xin phép c?nh tranh s? l??ng h?n ch?, các màn hình led th??ng ???c ??t t?i các v? trí r?, nh? vòng xoay to, link:"https://www.jcdecaux.com/blog/airport-advertising-10-reasons -why-it-works" rel="external nofollow" class="url" tr??ng bay nên th??ng ???c dành ??u tiên ch?n. Son Media webflow Vi?c s? d?ng màn hình led t?i tr??ng bay s? giúp b?n không c?n lo âu v?. Du khách b??c vào phi tr??ng th??ng hay b? ng? s? h?u vi?c chuy?n di t?u ch? ?? ra ??a ?i?m bay hay nhà v? sinh,… #sonmedia.Webflow.io, #sonmedia webflow nên vi?c m?c k?t ? ?ây là ?i?u thông th??ng. bên c?nh ?ó ?i?u ch?ng th? ng? t?i là t?i các tr??ng bay trong và ngoài n??c c?ng ?ang s? d?ng l?p ??t màn hình led trên phi tr??ng. Tùy ch?nh n?i dung trình chi?u: H? th?ng màn hình LED này cho phép nhà ?i?u hành tùy ch?nh n?i dung trình chi?u c?a t?ng màn hình trong ??i quát b?c t??ng video. Màn hình Oled 2 m?t s? d?ng hai màn hình Oled siêu m?ng ghép l?ng l?i có nhau ?? t?o nên m?t màn hình mang trình bày th? n?i dung ? c? 2 m?t. Màn hình LED mà nh?ng bóng càng s?p nhau thì ?? nét, ?? rõ càng cao. sonmedia. Webflow .io. sonmedia webflow bên c?nh phi công Nguy?n V?n B?y Qu?ng cáo sân bay n?i danh, còn 1 anh hùng b?n r?i 8 máy bay M? n?a mà ít ng??i bi?t ??n. hi?n nay, k? bên nh?ng kênh qu?ng bá truy?n th?ng nh? báo ?ài, truy?n hình thì qu?ng cáo màn hình LED ???c toàn b? doanh nghi?p #sonmedia.Webflow.io, #sonmedia webflow ch?n l?a. Trên th? tr??ng ngày nay s? h?u h? h?t liên h? cung ?ng màn hình led cho sân bay. Chúng tôi luôn phân ph?i cho ng??i mua m?i ?? v?t âm thanh, ánh sáng, v?t d?ng chi?u sáng,…?a d?ng và phong phú. D?ng màn hình này th??ng ???c s? d?ng ?? qu?ng bá ? v? trí vàng. Samsung hi?n chi?m th? toàn b? nh?t cho màn hình LCD và LED trên th? tr??ng toàn c?u. hôm nay, SMARTLED xin gi?i thi?u cho C? nhà ?i?m m?nh mà công ngh? led s? h?u ??n tr?i nghi?m cho các b?n và nâng cao doanh thu b?ng màn hình led t?i tr??ng bay. sonmedia. Webflow .io. sonmedia webflow Màn hình ghép LG c?ng là m?t th??ng hi?u Qu?ng cáo sân bay n?c danh và uy tín ???c khách hàng tuy?n l?a và tin tiêu dùng trên th? ph?n Vi?t Nam và toàn c?u. Ch?ng ?n tuy?t ??i: ngo?i hình qu?t siêu tinh, t?n nhi?t cao, ko ti?ng ?n. ?èn led r?t d? s? d?ng ?? thi?t k? thi công các b?ng hi?u truy?n bá. 1 b?ng hi?u v?i ngo?i hình n?i b?t s? t?o ???c ?n t??ng t?t cho ng??i mua và h? th?t d? nh?n ra b?n lúc h? c?n t?i b?n. Thi công qu?ng bá b?ng hi?u là 1 nguyên t? chính th? hi?n ?nh ?nh, tiêu chí th??ng nghi?p và ph?n chi?u ch?c n?ng ho?t ??ng c?a ??n v?, ??n v? ?ó. 7m, ti?t ki?m ?i?n n?ng tiêu th?. không nh?ng th?, hình ?nh, n?i dung ??i thay d? dàng, nhanh chóng qua máy tính mang chi phí t?t, giúp t? ch?c ti?t ki?m t?m giá trong chi?n d?ch qu?ng bá. #sonmedia.Webflow.io, #sonmedia webflow. sonmedia webflow Còn giá thành Qu?ng cáo sân bay truy?n bá trên màn hình LED t?t h?n r?ng rãi, mang ??n doanh thu to, ??c bi?t hi?u qu? lúc ??t màn hình t?i v? trí có r?ng rãi ng??i Quan sát. Hãy t?i v?iIn qu?ng cáo ?? chúng tôi s? h?u th? giúp b?n thi công nh?ng b?ng hi?u cá tính có m?c giá và nhà s?n xu?t t?i ?u nh?t. ?? phân gi?i cao, hi?u ?ng Ultra Full HD, c?u trúc, màu s?c t??i sáng. b?i th?, khách hàng ???c phép ??t bu?ng LED tùy ý ?? t?o các hi?u ?ng khác nhau. ?i?u này s? ph? thu?c vào nhu c?u dùng c?a tr??ng bay mà LEDCBM s? ?áp ?ng. Qu?ng cáo sân bay B?ng báo giá v?i th? s? ??i thay tùy thu?c vào kích th??c và ch?t li?u mà khách hàng l?a ch?n. s? h?u s?p 10 n?m kinh nghi?m trong ngành l?nh v?c b?ng hi?u, showroom, quán bar, v? tr??ng, n?i th?t có hàng tr?m D? án l?n nh? mà chúng tôi ?ã th?c hi?n t?i Tp.HCM. B?ng hi?u ?úng phong th?y giúp công ty làm ?n phát ??t. #sonmedia.Webflow.io, #sonmedia webflow

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  • Grimslut.com  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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    You ought to take part in a contest for one of the highest quality blogs on the internet. I'm going to recommend this blog!

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  • ???? ????  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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    Thanks You

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  • show girls  -  - Proposisi dalam Penelitian
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    Great! Thank you so much. Keep up the good work.

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